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Loosen your muscles and joints with these simple stretches. You can perform them in your seat, but make sure it is in the upright position. Remember to respect the personal space of fellow travellers.


    The Brazilian Ministry of health reported an ongoing outbreak of Yellow Fever which occurred mainly in rural areas with most cases being reported from Minas Gerais State. Vaccination campaigns are conducted among unvaccinated residents of affected areas.

    Anyone 9 months or older who travels to affected areas should be vaccinated against Yellow Fever and provide an international vaccination certificate when travelling. If no English certificate is presented at check-in, boarding can be denied. People who have never been vaccinated should not travel to areas with ongoing outbreaks.


    According to WHO, from 11 July the international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever is valid for the life of the person vaccinated. This lifetime validity applies automatically to all existing and new certificates, beginning 10 days after the date of vaccination. Accordingly, as of 11 July 2016, revaccination or a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine will not be required for international travellers as a condition of entry into a State Party, regardless of the date that their international certificate of vaccination was initially issued.

    Travellers to areas with ongoing outbreaks, should consider a booster dose if their last Yellow Fever Vaccination was given more than ten years ago. Travellers should consult with a yellow fever vaccine provider to determine if they should be vaccinated.

    What is Yellow Fever?

    Yellow fever is an infectious vector-borne disease that is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito vector such as Aëdes Aegypti.

    Mode of transmission

    • Bite of an infected mosquito vector such as Aëdes Aegypti


    • Yellow fever occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa and Tropical South America

    Incubation Period

    • 3-5 days

    Signs and Symptoms of Yellow Fever

    • Fever
    • Muscle pain with prominent backache
    • Headache
    • Shivers
    • Loss of appetite
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Toxic phase present with severe fever and several body systems are affected, including liver failure and jaundice.

    NB: Treatment is symptomatic


    • All travelers from 9 months of age travelling to yellow Fever endemic area

    Contra Indications

    • Infants below 9 months
    • Egg allergy
    • Pregnant women
    • Persons with immunosuppression like HIV with CD4 count below 200

    Travelers who are in possession of an exemption certificate due to medical reasons will be:

    • Allowed entry
    • Required to report any fever or other symptom to the health authorities AND
    • Be placed under quarantine surveillance

    How to prevent mosquito bites

    • Wear long sleeved clothing
    • Stay in well ventilated rooms where possible
    • Use the mosquito repellents containing DEET to avoid being bitten
    • Burn mosquito coils at night
    • Sleep under mosquito nets
    • Remain indoors between dusk and dawn
    • Cover doorways and windows with screens, but if not available , windows and doors should be closed at night
    • Spray inside the house with an aerosol insecticide
    • Treat clothes with an insecticide registered for this purpose e.g. pyrethroid

    Yellow Fever Map Africa

    Yellow Fever Map South America

    Yellow Fever Signs and Symptoms

    SAA has co-operated with the South African Department of Health to produce this document. SAA's role is to distribute information to all its customers; however, SAA is in no way responsible for the Regulations. New amendments or regulations will be updated from time to time, however, SAA accept no liability for any inaccuracies in the content.

  • Malaria kills more than 1 million people each year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It causes symptoms that typically include fever and headache, which in severe cases can progress to coma or death. Symptoms may develop as soon as seven days after arrival in a malarial area or up to 9 months after leaving such an area. Symptoms may often be mild in the initial stages:

    • Generalised body ache
    • Headache
    • Cough
    • Fever
    • Diarrhoea

    It is advisable to start using prophylactic medicines before visiting a malarial area. Please consult your medical practitioner or nearest travel clinic about the type and use of these medications:

    • Doxicycline
    • Malanil
    • Mefliam
    • Malarone
    • Primaquine

    It is also advisable to consult your General Practitioners or nearest travel clinic.

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) requires commercial aircraft travelling to and from certain countries be treated to prevent the spread of infectious diseases carried by insects. As a result, the aircraft may be sprayed during portions of your itinerary.

    Please visit this website for additional information.

    • Feet: Circle your feet at the ankles - 20 times per foot.
    • Legs: Starting with your feet on the floor, bring your legs slowly up towards your chest, as far as you can. Relax them slowly, and repeat three times.
    • Knees: Press the knees and thighs together, and tighten buttock muscles. Hold to the count of 5, and repeat 5 times.
    • Hands: Grip the edge of your armrest, and hold to a count of 5 then relax. Repeat 10 times.
    • Arms: Starting with your arms outstretched, flex at the elbow, and bring them slowly into your chest. Extend them again, and repeat 5 times.
    • Shoulders: Hunch up your shoulders, hold and slowly relax. Repeat 5 times.
    • Neck: Move your head slowly towards your right shoulder and hold. Then towards your left shoulder and hold. Move your chin slowly down towards your chest - hold and relax. Repeat 3 times.

    We recommend these exercise tips to help you to stay healthy whilst flying, particularly on longer trips.

  • The fifth meeting of the WHO Emergency Committee (EC) on Zika and microcephaly convened by the Director-General under the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus was held by teleconference on 18 November 2016.

    It is at this meeting that the Director-General declared the end of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Long term measures will be put in place to ensure that the disease is controlled.